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  • Topic: The Female/Male Brain

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    • July 12, 2017 9:21 PM BST
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      The idea of the male/female brain is one of the cornerstones of many transgender articles and is backed up by a lot of science.  However, I have come accross these two articles that offer another slant.  I am not convinced that they reach the right conclusions, but have a look and see what you think.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rYpDU040yzc&feature=youtu.be

       

      https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/nov/30/brain-sex-men-from-mars-women-venus-not-so-says-new-study

       

      Enjoy

       

      Alice

       

    • July 12, 2017 9:49 PM BST
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      1. Introduction The role of the androgen receptor in CNS masculinization or the absence of same in male feminisation 

      The medial posterior region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMP) and the locus coeruleus (LC) show opposite patterns of sexual dimorphism. The BSTMP in males is greater in volume and number of neurons than in females (male N female) while in the LC, the opposite is true (female N male). To investigate the possible role of the androgen receptor (AR) in the masculinization of these two structures, males with the testicular feminization mutation (Tfm) were compared to their control littermate males. No differences were seen in the number of neurons of the BSTMP between Tfm and their control littermate males, while in the LC, Tfm males have a greater number of neurons than their control littermate males. These results show that the AR is involved in the control of neuron number in the LC but not in the BSTMP. Results based on the LC suggest that when females have a larger brain area than males, masculinization in males may be achieved through the AR, with androgens perhaps decreasing cell survival. 

      Sex differences in the mammalian brain have two main characteristics: they often occur in neural circuits related 
      to reproductive physiology and behavior and they are seen in two opposite morphological patterns In one 
      pattern, males have greater volumes and/or number of neurons than females (male N female), while in the other, the opposite is true (female N male) Existing evidence suggest that gonadal androgens are involved in the development of sex differences in structures that are larger in males than in females,

       

      Cristine:- So is it safe to say the percentage difference between the number of neurons BSTMP M to F and F to male affect the degree of GID and could possible result in dual gender identity when more or less balanced? with no predominate influence.

      http://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/9870/cns-brain-male-feminisation   This thread contains more information and pictures of a transexuals brain compared with that of a male brain. 

      This post was edited by Cristine, Shye BL at July 12, 2017 10:03 PM BST
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      Cristine Jennifer Shye B.acc. BL (GS Admin) Tongue out

    • July 12, 2017 9:51 PM BST
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      Sexual Hormones and the Brain: An Essential Alliance for Sexual Identity and Sexual Orientation Garcia-Falgueras A, Swaab DF Endocr Dev. 2010;17:22-35

       

      The fetal brain develops during the intrauterine period in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. In this way, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation are programmed or organized into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in extreme cases in trans-sexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. in fact in the examination of male to female transexuals the brain composition would suggest varying degrees  uf under masculisation vegring on the near total feminisation. There is no indication that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation

       

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      Cristine Jennifer Shye B.acc. BL (GS Admin) Tongue out

    • July 12, 2017 9:54 PM BST
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      The scientific literature has already come to a consensus on the existence of cognitive sex differences, especially with regard to spatial ability. Both neural/hormonal and social factors contribute to those differences. See Diane Halpern's "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities".

      Stereotypes, including gender stereotypes, are mostly accurate. So saying that some view or conclusion is a gender stereotype is not a real criticism. See Lee Jussim's "Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy".

      Finally, let's assume the real reason why women have bigger corpus callosums is that they have smaller brains. Does the relation between sex and corpus callosum size cease to exist? No. Women on average will still have larger corpus callosums and all the (presumed) behavioural/cognitive characteristics associated with it.

       

      If you look at the sexual dimorphism from an evolutionary perspective, this makes perfect sense. In early human societies, men went out to hunt while women stayed in the village (with very few exceptions).

      The traits that made men more successful were those that allowed them to be better hunters and warriors: so coordinated action, perception of environmental opportunities and dangers. For the women in the village, their success is more dependent on "politics" and relationships. Instead of organizing hunts, the successful woman is one who is well liked by people and use strong communication skills and wits to solve problems (and not braun since they will lose to the stronger males).

      Thus over time, as the traits that marks a successful man and woman differs, it makes sense that there should be sexual dimorphism in brain structures.

       

      Which in turn is a probable and logical cause for some brain structure difference in male to female transexuals.

      This post was edited by Cristine, Shye BL at July 12, 2017 9:55 PM BST
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      Cristine Jennifer Shye B.acc. BL (GS Admin) Tongue out

    • July 12, 2017 9:55 PM BST
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      Yeah, thats what I thought.  The Ted talk on this one was interesting, but as I said, I didn't agree with her conclusions.  But it is interesting research anyway.

       

      Alice

    • July 14, 2017 12:05 PM BST
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      Thanks for sharing.Cris mentioned scientific research with TFM, which to my knowledge refers to Testicular Feminised Mice,.This is a Laboratory construct in which Scientists wishing to make test in a gender neutral subject,will use a species of mice with the TFM trait.The idea of using a gender neutral construct in Science now seems flawed,but I am old enough to understand why in previous decades it was considered valid enough.The TED talk was an interesting start point,which reflects a more open approach,removing the need for rigid constructs in Science.From a personal point of view I can relate to the idea that understanding our personal individual environment of Stress ,Gender Dysphoria, and Brain development can make sense of our behaviour.
    • July 14, 2017 12:29 PM BST
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      Thinking of the Past,I can identify in myself a lot of pain when I was confronted with induced stress in male dominated work environments.This would have a lasting effect on me as it seemed I could not escape my reaction.I am glad to say that in the present,having had HRT ,and GRS the set up for want of a better word is more coherent,my reaction to stress and the feeling of what I can do is connected.
    • July 14, 2017 11:02 PM BST
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      I did'nt soley rely on the TFM  related report, further investigation lead me to other sources, I actually had my own brain scanned at the gene clinic in Cambridge the report  in my case, was, whilst there were minor abnormalities, it could  be noted in their opinion that it made no significant difference, to my own gender disorder, even though I had previously been diagnosed with reifensteins syndrome.

       

      The thread I started. refered to above goes into more detail and shows significant differences in the brain scans of trans people compared with those of 'normal' natal males and females. veering to the opposite of birth gender.

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      Cristine Jennifer Shye B.acc. BL (GS Admin) Tongue out

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